Jingle Maker – Making Jingles With Desktop Music Maker Software

Looking to get into the jingle maker industry? It’s not exactly an easy field to break into but it is worth the trouble if you are ready to put forth the necessary time and effort to make it. If you are not already a professional musician then you will need a way to produce your jingles. We recommend desktop music maker software for this purpose. The rest of this article will cover the top three things you should look for when it comes to a desktop music making application for making jingles.

Feature #1 – Professional Music Production

If you are approaching the jingle making from the perspective of making money then you need to make sure your entire production is created in the manner that lends itself for commercial adaptation. This is essential if you expect your jingles to be used as radio jingles, commercial jingles or advertising jingles. For starters that means making sure you are able to create music output that is a minimum of 44,1 khz.wav files. You will also want to be able to create real bars of music versus samples or loops. This is a benefit of using music making software because it will make sure your music is created to be communicated to other musicians for playback.

Feature #2 – Variety Of Features

When you are just get started you will want something that allows you to take the melodies in your head and get them into music as quick as possible. Yet at the same time you don’t want to have to learn another application as your own skill set grows. This is why it makes sense to choose software that is usable as a beginner and expert alike. It should come with a number of presets that you can expand upon and purchase as your own abilities grow.

Feature #3 – Complete With Sound Generator

You never know where your jingle making skills will take you so you should also have access to making sound effects. It’s not necessarily a must have feature but if you have the choice then make it for software that does include this. You just never know when you may need this as a jingle maker.

We have briefly looked at some of the features you may want to look for when searching for music maker software for your jingle production exercise. The needed feature set should include professional music production capabilities, a variety of features and a sound generator. Of course these are just a small sample of features that you will find when looking for music maker software. But having the right tools just means you will be that much closer to creating the next set of catchy jingles.

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Why Do We Need Software Engineering?

To understand the necessity for software engineering, we must pause briefly to look back at the recent history of computing. This history will help us to understand the problems that started to become obvious in the late sixties and early seventies, and the solutions that have led to the creation of the field of software engineering. These problems were referred to by some as “The software Crisis,” so named for the symptoms of the problem. The situation might also been called “The Complexity Barrier,” so named for the primary cause of the problems. Some refer to the software crisis in the past tense. The crisis is far from over, but thanks to the development of many new techniques that are now included under the title of software engineering, we have made and are continuing to make progress.

In the early days of computing the primary concern was with building or acquiring the hardware. Software was almost expected to take care of itself. The consensus held that “hardware” is “hard” to change, while “software” is “soft,” or easy to change. According, most people in the industry carefully planned hardware development but gave considerably less forethought to the software. If the software didn’t work, they believed, it would be easy enough to change it until it did work. In that case, why make the effort to plan?

The cost of software amounted to such a small fraction of the cost of the hardware that no one considered it very important to manage its development. Everyone, however, saw the importance of producing programs that were efficient and ran fast because this saved time on the expensive hardware. People time was assumed to save machine time. Making the people process efficient received little priority.

This approach proved satisfactory in the early days of computing, when the software was simple. However, as computing matured, programs became more complex and projects grew larger whereas programs had since been routinely specified, written, operated, and maintained all by the same person, programs began to be developed by teams of programmers to meet someone else’s expectations.

Individual effort gave way to team effort. Communication and coordination which once went on within the head of one person had to occur between the heads of many persons, making the whole process very much more complicated. As a result, communication, management, planning and documentation became critical.

Consider this analogy: a carpenter might work alone to build a simple house for himself or herself without more than a general concept of a plan. He or she could work things out or make adjustments as the work progressed. That’s how early programs were written. But if the home is more elaborate, or if it is built for someone else, the carpenter has to plan more carefully how the house is to be built. Plans need to be reviewed with the future owner before construction starts. And if the house is to be built by many carpenters, the whole project certainly has to be planned before work starts so that as one carpenter builds one part of the house, another is not building the other side of a different house. Scheduling becomes a key element so that cement contractors pour the basement walls before the carpenters start the framing. As the house becomes more complex and more people’s work has to be coordinated, blueprints and management plans are required.

As programs became more complex, the early methods used to make blueprints (flowcharts) were no longer satisfactory to represent this greater complexity. And thus it became difficult for one person who needed a program written to convey to another person, the programmer, just what was wanted, or for programmers to convey to each other what they were doing. In fact, without better methods of representation it became difficult for even one programmer to keep track of what he or she is doing.

The times required to write programs and their costs began to exceed to all estimates. It was not unusual for systems to cost more than twice what had been estimated and to take weeks, months or years longer than expected to complete. The systems turned over to the client frequently did not work correctly because the money or time had run out before the programs could be made to work as originally intended. Or the program was so complex that every attempt to fix a problem produced more problems than it fixed. As clients finally saw what they were getting, they often changed their minds about what they wanted. At least one very large military software systems project costing several hundred million dollars was abandoned because it could never be made to work properly.

The quality of programs also became a big concern. As computers and their programs were used for more vital tasks, like monitoring life support equipment, program quality took on new meaning. Since we had increased our dependency on computers and in many cases could no longer get along without them, we discovered how important it is that they work correctly.

Making a change within a complex program turned out to be very expensive. Often even to get the program to do something slightly different was so hard that it was easier to throw out the old program and start over. This, of course, was costly. Part of the evolution in the software engineering approach was learning to develop systems that are built well enough the first time so that simple changes can be made easily.

At the same time, hardware was growing ever less expensive. Tubes were replaced by transistors and transistors were replaced by integrated circuits until micro computers costing less than three thousand dollars have become several million dollars. As an indication of how fast change was occurring, the cost of a given amount of computing decreases by one half every two years. Given this realignment, the times and costs to develop the software were no longer so small, compared to the hardware, that they could be ignored.

As the cost of hardware plummeted, software continued to be written by humans, whose wages were rising. The savings from productivity improvements in software development from the use of assemblers, compilers, and data base management systems did not proceed as rapidly as the savings in hardware costs. Indeed, today software costs not only can no longer be ignored, they have become larger than the hardware costs. Some current developments, such as nonprocedural (fourth generation) languages and the use of artificial intelligence (fifth generation), show promise of increasing software development productivity, but we are only beginning to see their potential.

Another problem was that in the past programs were often before it was fully understood what the program needed to do. Once the program had been written, the client began to express dissatisfaction. And if the client is dissatisfied, ultimately the producer, too, was unhappy. As time went by software developers learned to lay out with paper and pencil exactly what they intended to do before starting. Then they could review the plans with the client to see if they met the client’s expectations. It is simpler and less expensive to make changes to this paper-and-pencil version than to make them after the system has been built. Using good planning makes it less likely that changes will have to be made once the program is finished.

Unfortunately, until several years ago no good method of representation existed to describe satisfactorily systems as complex as those that are being developed today. The only good representation of what the product will look like was the finished product itself. Developers could not show clients what they were planning. And clients could not see whether what the software was what they wanted until it was finally built. Then it was too expensive to change.

Again, consider the analogy of building construction. An architect can draw a floor plan. The client can usually gain some understanding of what the architect has planned and give feed back as to whether it is appropriate. Floor plans are reasonably easy for the layperson to understand because most people are familiar with the drawings representing geometrical objects. The architect and the client share common concepts about space and geometry. But the software engineer must represent for the client a system involving logic and information processing. Since they do not already have a language of common concepts, the software engineer must teach a new language to the client before they can communicate.

Moreover, it is important that this language be simple so it can be learned quickly.

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How to Uninstall and Remove G DATA Antivirus Completely

G DATA Antivirus is a complete protection solution for your home computer. However, no matter the reason is that corrupt virus signatures may have caused it not to upgrade properly, it will not work regularly and needs to be repaired, or probably corrupt files are causing 100% CPU usage, etc. Like all other antivirus software, there also may be times when you have to uninstall and remove G DATA Antivirus.

The standard method of uninstalling G DATA Antivirus is from Windows built-in Add / Remove Programs, but sometimes the removal process will hang and you may be unable to remove this program from your computer, because some registry entries and spaces may still be left in Your system. In this case, if you wish to completely remove this antivirus, you have to delete all those sticky registry entries, processes, services, as well as related folders and files.

Removing all instances of this antivirus program can be extremely tricky and there is a risk of damaging the operating system if not done properly. Then you can try using a good removal tool to help you remove this program automatically in seconds. Perfect Uninstaller is one of such software. It works in a very simple manner. Aside from working to remove G DATA Antivirus, it can also get rid of other unwanted programs from your computer.

1. It offers a much quicker and easier way to completely remove programs which can not be removed through "Add / Remove Programs".
2. It completely deletes empty or corrupt registry entries.
3. It has the "force uninstall" function to forcibly uninstall corrupted or hidden programs.
4. It has the "Special Uninstall" function designed for some very specific programs in that list
5. It can restore the registry to a previous state, and restore files from the recycle bin (files deleted into the recycle bin).

Uninstall and remove G DATA Antivirus from your system before proceeding with the installation of the next antivirus that you would like to set up, otherwise the antivirus will conflict and give much trouble that you will not be able to recover Windows from the crash.

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Texas Two Step Strategy – Everything You Need to Know

The Texas Two Step lottery is a great example of a game that is both strategic and fun. The state lottery is an excellent arena for you to shell out your extra dollars while learning about alternative lotto mechanics. In the state of Texas, the Texas Two Step is considered to be the most popular form of lottery. The game beings when an individual is asked to pick four number from and in between 1 to 35. Like most lotto types, this also has a bonus ball number, which can increase your chances of winning. The grand price for this unique game does not go below two hundred thousand dollars so long as you make five matches. If you are also quite hesitant to pick your own number, the quick pick system also applies to the Texas Two Step lottery. A multi-draw feature also allows you to bet for ten advance drawings at once by simply making a distinguishable mark in the designated ticket boxes. Single plays cost only US$1 each and can reflect winnings up to a hundred thousand dollars.

Most lottery systems base on luck as foundation for winning. Unfortunately, even with the convenience of quick picks and other strategies, chances of winning are still small. One effective way to increase the chances of gaining back positive results from your chosen number is by adhering to the Wheeling Systems. Generally, wheeling systems do not guarantee an automatic win after placing your number picks in the Texas Two Step. However, the mechanism gives you more chances of bringing home multiple tier prizes as opposed to you simply randomly selecting the number, or relying on quick picks. The odds of winning the Texas Two Step prize are statistically ranging from 1 to 32. The overall ratio of victory can be quite unsatisfactory if played with mere dependence on luck. Although you can win $5 for simply matching the bonus ball number, naturally, anyone would still want to vie for the grand prize.

There are also a handful of lotto software that provide good combination numbers for players. Most people confirm the effectiveness of most online programs in tracking the best numeral combinations for lottery. You may program these to suit your needs and according to the type of lottery that you participate in. For Texas Two Step, it is much easier to use a software to calculate possible combinations as it has lesser selections or numbers compared to most lotto games.

For serious lotto players, individuals simply log onto the website and place their bets randomly. Sites also offer a few tips and strategies on how to best employ their gaming techniques. You may be able to view advices on when is the best time to place your bets and how to purchase your tickets quickly. Other websites also present lottery news, which is also an effective way to keep track of your bets. Bear in mind that in order for a player to achieve positive results while playing lotto, the correct strategy and technique must put in place so as to lead you to triumph and victory.

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The Role of Technology in Education

In the current age we live in, technology has become an important component. Every day there is some new gadget or software that makes lives easier and improves on the technology and software that already exists. Making lives easier is not, however, the only role technology plays in our lives.

Technology is playing an increasing role in education. As technology advances, it is used to benefit students of all ages in the learning process.

Technology used in the classroom helps students adsorb the material. For example, since some people are visual learners, projection screens linked to computers can allow students to see their notes instead of simply listening to a teacher deliver a lecture.

Software can be used to supplement class curriculum. The programs provide study questions, activities, and even tests and quizzes for a class that can help students continue learning outside the classroom.

Technology has also become part of many curriculums, even outside of computer and technology classes. Students use computers to create presentations and use the Internet to research topics for papers and essays.

Students also learn to use the technology available to them in computer and tech classes. This ensures that after graduation they will be able to use the technology in a work setting, which may put them ahead of someone who did not have access to a particular technology or software in their own school setting.

As technology advances, students have better access to educational opportunities like these. When something new and "better" is disclosed, the "older" technology becomes more affordable, allowing it to be used in educational settings, even when schools are on a tight budget.

Technology has also advanced to help children even before they've started school. Educational video games and systems for young children helps them prepare for school and in some cases get a head start on their education.

There are people who may say children are "spoiled" by technology. Instead of being able to add a long column of numbers in their heads, for example, they turn to a calculator. Regardless of these arguments, technology is an important part of today's society. By incorporating it into the classroom, students will be better equipped to transition from the classroom to the work place.

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Surviving Missing Futon Frame Hardware Nightmares

There seems to be quite a few of us who have owned a futon frame and ended up losing the connecting hardware at one time or another. I myself bought a futon from the retail store I worked in for a number of years back in the early 1990s when futons were all the rage. Maybe you purchased your futon in college, purchased it from a friend or maybe made the purchase for a family room. If you're lucky to live out your life in the same house or apartment there will never be a need to move your futon except except to a different room or location. Obtaining replacement futon frame hardware involves several steps approached in order to locate exactly what you need.

In the first place do not panic just yet. Without the hardware to attach everything back together you're in some serious trouble. However there are ways to obtain what you need. At this point we could explain the many benefits of using a small bag to contain the hardware and attach it to a part of the frame with heavy packing tape so it's easily found. Who am I kidding though? I've moved mine now about three times and each time I ended up missing a bolt, a barrel nut, a nylon roller here and there. Heck, I was lucky I had all the wood components show up at each new move let alone any hardware that happened to make it as well. Besides, is not moving your home stressful enough without having to keep track of a small bag of metal hardware among a sea of ​​furniture, clothing, dishes, toys and appliances?

Pursuing this further we must calmly step back and think for a moment. Yes, we're stressed out and fuming at either our spouse or the moving company for losing the futon hardware but we need to move past that now. To be sure the futon needs our help and we're the only ones who can do it at this point. It's time for us to go through the steps of obtaining replacement hardware and there is a specific order in which we do this to obtain the fastest results. I would suggest the following steps to start tracking down replacement hardware as soon as possible.

First – identify your futon frame.
Having worked retail, it's quite possibly the toughest situation when a customer comes into the store requiring assistance but can not identify the product to the salesperson or service individual when requesting parts. Granted you're going to have to do a little research by pulling your receipt when you bought the futon from the store and identify the model or name of the futon. If you inherited the futon, found it by the side of the road or bought it at a garage sale you're in for a tough road ahead. Fear not however as the internet can be used to help you find the design and attach a name to it for use in tracking down hardware. Be aware that there are dozens of manufacturers out there using different hardware in their frames including many that have since closed their doors. Hopefully the manufacturer of your frame is still around.

Second – speak to the retailer.
Of course if you purchased your futon frame through a local retail store it's time to head down there and see if they can track down the hardware for your frame. Bring your receipt. If you do not have a receipt, then bring an image of the futon frame with you. Hopefully the salesperson or service representative is knowledgeable about the products that they've carried in the past. Best case scenario, they either can provide you with the name of the manufacturer with contact information or have the parts on hand to get you back up and running. Worst case scenario the store you purchased it is out of business or if the store is still around they have no clue about the product anymore.

Third – search online.
Supposing we've hit the worse case scenario it's time to use the web to search for the manufacturer or the name of the style of futon you have. I'd suggest using Google, Bing or Yahoo and use the name adding the word futon to the search. If you were not able to locate a name you're going to have to become a very good spotter and sift through the many images of futon frames till you find one that is very close to what you have. Identify the name of the style and the manufacturer and then proceed to locate the manufacturer of the futon frame.

Fourth – speak to the manufacturer.
Assuming the retailer did not have parts but could identify the manufacturer for you then at least have something to go on. Perhaps you were able to locate your frame style through the search engines. Again, search online using the websites previously discussed using the name of the manufacturer. You'll likely get some online retail stores off of the search. Filter them out visually until you find a link for the manufacturer. Most do have websites, locate a contact phone number or email address and contact them for information on obtaining hardware. If you're unable to locate the manufacturer's website go ahead and contact one of the many futon stores that pop-up in the search results and email them with your issue and ask if they can either sell you hardware or point you in the right direction For finding the manufacturer in hopes of tracking down hardware.

Finally – the last resort.
If you were unable to determine the name of the futon frame or the name of the manufacturer you are indeed in a tight spot. At this point your options are limited to heading down to a hardware store and seeing if you can locate some generic parts that might get you back up and running. The problem will be in the way of connecting bolts and barrel nuts and getting the right lengths if available. I would suggest taking one of the wood arms and a stretcher rail with you to the store. Begin plugging in different bolts and nuts till you find a combination that connects correctly. You'll also need to track down connecting pins, washers and clips for the seat and back section as well as the four nylon rollers that most futon frames use on the back rest. If you're lucky these may still be attached to the backrest deck making your job a bit easier.

In conclusion we've discussed the issues presented with lost futon hardware and how to go about tracking down the hardware you need. Basically identify your frame through a receipt or spotting it online. Visit the retailer store you purchased it from and obtain parts through them if they are still open. If you purchased it privately or inherited the frame track down the manufacturer using a search engine of your choice and speak to them about ordering replacements. If you are not able to locate the manufacturer but have found stores online contact one of them to see if they can sell you hardware. If all else fails visit the local hardware store with your wood futon sections in hand and begin trying bolts and nuts till you find some that work. I sincerely hope you're able to obtain the needed hardware to get your futon frame back up and running. I wish you the best of luck to you and your futon.

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Understanding the Significance of Computer Hardware

We are living in an age that is highly influenced by technology. Most of the activities we need to do now are automatic or computerized. Of all the technological developments achieved in the recent past, one significant tool that got developed and which will certainly keep influencing our lives is the computer. You would agree that computers play a very basic role in our daily life, just like the television and the cell phone. We are already at a stage where life will be difficult without a computer. That makes it important to understand the way a computer works, and then be informed of what we should do if it stops working. The most important part of any computer is its hardware, in the absence of which it just can not function.

If you are really keen to assess what has gone wrong with your computer when it stops working, you should understand the working and constituents of its hardware. You should especially have solid knowledge about the computer hardware when you want to undertake its troubleshooting on your own. One important part of the hardware is the RAM memory of any computer. For running any program or application, any computer needs a RAM memory. Other than that, if the computer has a RAM with specifications that are not compatible with the programs it is expected to run, its operation will be slowed down and it would almost crawl. When choosing a computer, you need to ensure that its hardware is not outdated, otherwise you'll have to upgrade it in order to be able to use the intended program.

You must take certain basic precautions while handling the hardware of computers. The most essential precaution is to ensure that the power supply to your computer is switched off, else it could cause an electric shock. Then, before you touch any part within the computer, ensure that you are not carrying any electric charge by connecting to a grounded piece of metal or you may procure an anti-static mat or wrist band available in the market. While inspecting the hardware components, you should look for broken or damaged component, as these are most likely the reasons for the computer malfunction. If a component does not fit in the slot, you are probably trying to fit it in the incorrect slot.

Once you know the hardware employed in your computer and the role it plays in the functionality of your computer, you'll be in a position to undertake its troubleshooting when it malfunctions. Each piece of hardware contributes to the successful function of the computer. To a large extent, the working of a computer depends on the quality of its hardware, making it imperative to keep it in good condition.

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Application Software in Business Activities

Business is any activity undertaken by an individual or a group of person with an intention to make profits. A business engages in various activities like planning of resource, scheduling of activities, coordinating and other managerial activities. All these have to be completed in time in order to generate maximum profit in the production. Prospective entrepreneurs should adhere to these objectives.

Much of business time is put waste when it handles its tasks through the use manual system. This necessitates to the use of the software, an automated means which is efficient-oriented. Examples of the software in business application include the Decision Support System, Transaction Processing system and Management Information System. They can be largely used in resource planning where an enterprise defines way to achievement.

Collaborative resource planning software provides the business people with adequate and reliable information. Marketing information and bureaucracy of the enterprise is unambiguous. Previous methods that contributed to the failures can be fully noted. This enables the enterprise to opt to use other successful means in use elsewhere. An efficient resource planning software helps you to generate and retrieve information about resource allocation in form of detailed niche reports. As a result, time as a resource is much conserved and can be used in other productive areas.

Boundaries are clearing defined by the software. The business is expected to work towards the laid limits by the legal authority, operational, technical, economic and social feasibility. Beyond the predetermined extents, no productive operation can be encountered.

Scheduling of activities is best in practice via use of the software. The order and the way in which operation is accurately developed by use of the program, this results into application of qualitative business techniques, where there is matching of skills and jobs to done. The enterprise standards of performance are maintained. Cases of underemployment or over employment are eradicated. In turn, employees’ are encouraged to exercise creativity and innovation in right of their propelling positions, and hence works towards achievement of objectives of the business.

Planning software makes efficient forecasting of resources. Unknown future is determined prior. Situations like inflation, competition increases government provision of subsidies and technological changes can be adequately known. The fallout is to relay strategies to deal with upcoming challenging matters.

Top echelons (management) benefits significantly in software application. Executives’ unstructured decisions are accurately established. They rapidly derive information from the software. For example, decisions on where to establish a new firm or a branch, whether there is funds to finance multiple projects.

Management need to store information in reliable source (in software). This is used for swift evaluation of business performance. They can decide to reward the best performing employees based on the results retrieved from the software. This motivates employees to work zeal and confidence. Their individuals objectives are harmonized to entire business objectives.

Managers use software to control the progress of activities. Those deviating from the predetermined plans can be precisely noted. Management can also rely on software for marketing of its products. Research on business competition like advertisement and efficient market penetration means is done in detail.

In conclusion, software suitable for effective planning of the business operations, scheduling of activities and other managerial activities. Without use of software, a business is considered to be running behind technology and operating at obsolete level.

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Determining the Best Type of Fastener to Use For Outdoor Furniture Construction

If you want to learn about selecting hardware for your next outdoor furniture project, then you'll want to read this article. Specifically, I'll be telling you about what type of hardware will perform best, why the type of metal used for fasteners and the finish used are important considerations, and how properly protecting or limiting exposure of your furniture to wet and winter conditions can increase Life span. After you're done with this article you will understand that the best choice of hardware for your outdoor furniture project is dependent on furniture style, material used for construction, selected location for the furniture and budget.

Selecting proper hardware for your furniture will help ensure a long life span, as well as improve the overall appearance of your furniture. Part of the problem is knowing what hardware to select when there are so many options available at the hardware store. The typical Lowes or Home Depot carries a huge selection of stainless steel, hot dipped galvanized, bright galvanized, plain steel, coated steel and brass bolts, nuts, washers and screws. Each type of fastener is suitable for certain applications, but not all are ideal for outdoor furniture applications.

In fact, choosing the wrong fasteners can greatly shorten the lifespan of your furniture, contribute to rot of wood furniture, cause unsightly staining, and even make your furniture unsafe to use.

One thing that needs to be noted right up front is, do not ever use unprotected steel fasteners for outdoor furniture, they will rust very quickly, and the steel will react with the tannic acid in the wood causing streaks and staining. The tannic acid actually speeds up the corrosion of the fasteners. Have you ever seen a wooden fence with black streaks running down the boards from the nails? This fence was installed with the wrong type of fasteners. The same thing will happen to your furniture. Even worse, as the fasteners rust, they will speed up the decay process of the wood around the rusted fasteners, ruining your furniture and making it potentially unsafe to use.

Hot Dipped Galvanized

Screws and bolts treated by hot dipped galvanizing are specifically designed for use outdoors. Electroplated galvanized or bright galvanized fasteners will very well not hold up as well as the hot dipped galvanized hardware. Zinc is used as a coating in both methods, and acts as a barrier against the elements and the tannic acids in the wood.

I strongly recommend only using screws or bolts in the construction of outdoor furniture, however. The galvanized finish on nails, either electroplated or hot dipped, can easily become damaged while hammering them in, exposing the nail head to the elements and allowing them to begin rusting quickly.

Adequate care must be taken when installing galvanized screws. Drill pilot holes in hardwoods, and be sure to use a bit that is not worn and intolerable to skipping in the screw head. For whatever reason, the galvanized screws seem to not be as well tempered as other steel fasteners, and are more likely to either snap off or have the heads strip out while installing them. Due to the permission required for the hot dipped coating, galvanized bolts do not have as tight of tolerance on the threads, and are more likely to strip if over tightened.

Hot dipped galvanized fasteners are a fine choice for many outdoor furniture applications, including Adirondack Chairs, but are not the best choice for use in woods, such as teak.

Stainless steel

Stainless steel is the best choice for use in woods with higher levels of tannic acid, such as teak. Stainless steel is an alloy or blend of steel, nickel and chrome. The ratio of the other metals with the steel determine the weather and corrosion resistance of stainless steel. Because the steel is mixed with other softer metals, the stainless steel is not as strong, so predrilling of screw holes is highly recommended in all applications, and essential in hardwoods such as teak and mahogany. The added corrosion resistance more than outweighs any shortcomings that the metal may have, especially in outdoor furniture applications.

While stainless steel fasteners are the most rust resistant, they are also the most expensive of the options we are discussing. However, using stainless steel fasteners will add years of life to your furniture. In the respect, they are an investment that will pay out for years to come.


I have seen brass used in some commercially produced outdoor furniture, but do not recommend it. While brass does not form red rust, and is well suited for many wet applications such as toilets and sinks, it does tarnish and corrode. It is also very susceptible to the tannic acids in wood, which will cause it to fail more quickly. Brass screws in particular Do not have sufficient strength for outdoor furniture applications.

Outdoor or deck screws

In the past several years a number of manufacturers have introduced outdoor fastening products specifically marketed for deck building. These will typically be green, gray, tan or brown. These screws are either ceramic or plastic coated to delay the metal reacting with the wood acids. The specific coating methods are proprietary to each manufacturer, and can be a combination of electroplated galvanizing and plastic, or a baked on ceramic.

I have used these fasteners in furniture applications and they perform just fine. Unfortunately, I have not come across bolts with this type of finish. The brand of screw I used was Deck Mate, and they were available in tan and brown, so that the color can be selected to better match the wood being used. These screws are ceramic covered, and the manufacturer provided a coated bit for installation, which was designed to not damage the ceramic coating at the screw head. If you choose this type of fastener, be sure to compare the cost with stainless steel, as the price will vary. If the stainless steel is reasonably comparable in cost, it would be the recommended fastener.

Always be sure to read the manufacturers specifications on the box to be sure that the screws are suitable for your application.

Other Considerations

If you are building furniture that will be located on a covered porch or patio where it will be protected from the elements, the concern will be the interaction between the wood and the fasteners, much more so than the weather. Furniture that will be exposed to the elements all year, such as a garden bench, or an adirondack chair in the corner of your garden, will have to be constructed with much more care and concern to ensure that they hold up more than just one or Two winters.

Additional considerations must be made beyond just the choice of what type of fastener to use, though this is very important. For example, fasteners should not be located where water where collect and sit on the fasteners for an extended period of time. The screws that attach the seat slats to an Adirondack chair are a prime example- typically these screws will be countersunk below the surface of the wood. This will allow water to collect in the screw holes, shortening the life span of all but stainless steel fasteners, and prolonging the exposure of the wood to water, which will increase the rate of decay. In applications where the furniture will be exposed to the elements year round the screw heads should be driven flush with the surface of the surrounding wood.

Construction and design of the furniture are also important considerations. Are the horizontal surfaces of the furniture constructed in such a way that will allow them to shed water, rather than collect it? Think of a picnic table with a slatted or board top. The gaps between the boards allow water a way to run off the top and not pool up.


Stainless steel is usually the best choice for outdoor furniture applications, although the cost may be prohibitive for some. There are other less expensive fastener options available that will perform acceptably. Do not use unprotected steel fasteners for outdoor furniture applications under any circumstances. Know where and how you intend to use your furniture and design it for the conditions it will be subjected to.

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Medical Coding History – From Paper to Medial Coding Software

If we define medical coding as the assignment of alphanumerical characters to diagnoses, diseases, and treatments, then medical coding has been traced back to the 1600s in England with the London Bills of Mortality. A more standardized system of coding was developed for classifying death at the tail end of the 19th century. In 1893, Jacque Bertillon, a statistician, created the Bertillon Classification of Causes of Death, a system which was eventually adopted by 26 countries at the beginning of the 20th century. Shortly after the Bertillon Classification system was implemented, people began discussing the possibility of expanding the system beyond mortality as a way of tracking diseases.

By the middle of the 20th century, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a goal of a single global classification system for disease and mortality, entitled the International Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death (ICD). This classification system is updated every 10 years. The latest revision, ICD-10, is scheduled for adoption in the United States in 2013.

What started out as a small set of medical codes has evolved into a complex system that was initially standardized by the American Medical Association back in 1966 with current procedure codes (CPT) codes that are updated annually.

In the late 1970s, the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) was developed based on CPT. HCPCS has three levels of codes: Level One is the original CPT system. Level Two codes are alphanumeric and include non-physician services such as ambulances and other transportation as well as patient devices such as prosthetic devices. Level Three codes were developed as local codes, and were discontinued in 2003 in order to keep all codes relevant worldwide.

Recently, medical coding systems have been expanded to include other medical specialties. For example, there are coding systems related to disabilities, the dental field, prescription drugs, and mental health.

As the coding systems have become more complex and diverse, the need for training of medical coders has grown exponentially. Private training schools and public colleges throughout the country have developed certification programs. In order to be awarded a certificate, students must obtain a two-year degree from an accredited medical coding school and pass an exam given by the AHIMA.

Over the past 20 years, many coding processes have shifted from a paper-based system to a computer-based system using medical coding software and medical billing software. Many companies sell complete medical software-based coding solutions and myriad of products for specific medical disciplines, such as products that are specifically tailored to skilled nursing facilities, physicians, hospitals, surgery, cardiology, and more.

As medical facilities and professionals begin preparing for the conversion to ICD-10 in 2013, the need for more sophisticated medical coding software solutions and qualified medical coders will continue to grow.

CPT is a registered trademark of the American Medical Association.

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