Top 25 Terms All Computer Students Should Know

The following basic terminologies are considered the top 25 terms all computer students should know before they even begin their studies:

1. Bit: Binary data storage unit valued at either 1 or 0.

2. Byte: Eight data bits valued between zero and 255.

3. Word: Two data bytes or 16 data bits between zero zero and 16,535.

4. CD-ROM: A storage disk with approximately 640 megabytes of capacity.

5. CD-ROM Drive: Hardware used for reading and writing to CD-ROMs.

6. Storage Media: Magnetic devices that permanently store computer data.

7. File: Permanent storage structure for data kept on a hard drive or other permanent place.

8. Virus: Unauthorized programs that infect files or send themselves via email.

9. Vulnerability: When unauthorized access can be gained due to software errors.

10. Security Flaw: When attackers gain unauthorized system access due to a software bug.

11. Worm: Unwanted programs accessing computers via application / system vulnerabilities.

12. Hardware: Physical parts of computer (case, disk drive, monitor, microprocessor, etc.).

13. Software: Programs that run on a computer system.

14. Firmware: Software that has been permanently written into a computer.

15. ISP: Internet Service Provider.

16. BIOS: The basic input / output system computers use to interface with devices.

17. MIME: Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension.

18. Boot: What happens when a computer is turned on and beginning to run.

19. Crash: When computer software errors occur and programs fail to respond.

20. Driver: Program that understands interfaced devices like printers and video cards.

21. Network: Cables and other electrical components carrying data between computers.

22. Operating System: A computer's core software component.

23. Parallel: Sending data over more than one line simultaniously.

24. Serial: Sending data over a single line one bit at a time.

25. Protocols: Communication methods and other standard Internet / networking functions.

These are the top 25 terms all computer students should know before they even begin their technical training. Most computer students know much more. In fact, everyone who uses a computer these days should understand these terms so they can be better informed about the important tool that is so integral to our daily lives.

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Double Towel Racks – The Easy Way To Increase Space

Bathrooms almost always pose a storage challenge. They often have minimal space to do all the jobs we need to do in there and to store everything we use while we're in there.

When a bathroom is shared by a couple of people, or even an entire family, unique storage challenges come up, and they require unique solutions. When, say, four people use the same room for bathing, an obvious problem is: where do you put all the towels? Bathroom hardware manufacturers came up with a better solution: double towel racks.

A traditional single towel rack provides sufficient space to dry one towel. If you've got four people using four towels each day, and you have a typical bathroom, you'll need a wall covered with towel rods to provide enough drying space.

Double towel racks provide an innovation solution to this all-too-common bathroom storage problem. You'll find double towel racks come in traditional finishes like polished chrome and polished and antique brass, and popular finishes like brushed nickel and oil-rubbed bronze. You can find economic versions of double towel racks in unfinished wood and ceramic-and-plastic. Regardless of the amount the wall space you have available to install this hardware, you'll find one to fit your space; They come in the range of standard sizes.

If your bathroom is short on storage, you'll usually be open to considering any new space-saving solutions. You can find bathroom suites with a double towel racks installed below. Imagine-in the space where you could normally dry a towel or two, you can double your hanging space, and have room to store a few fresh folded towels and other bathroom essentials, too.

Double towel racks are an excellent solution when you've got lots of damp towels to handle, but other solutions do exist:

• Install a row of pegs or hooks along the wall of the bathroom.
• Install one or more multi-prong hooks on the back of the bathroom door.
• Buy a shower curtain rod with a towel rack incorporated in its design.
• When you purchase shower doors, look for ones where the handles double as towel bars.
• Install suction-cup hooks inside the tub surround.
• Place a swing-arm towel bar to the wall next to your tub or shower. This way, the towel bars extend into the room; They are not limited to hanging against a wall.
• Hang a hook over the bathroom door, linen closet door, or the door of the water closet. These over-door hooks come in single, double, and multiple hook versions in colors and finishes that either stand out or blend in.
• Repurpose an old-style coat rack and use it to hang towels in the bathroom. It takes up only a single square foot of precious floor space.
• If you want to add furniture to your bathroom, look for a hall tree, which is usually reserved for use in the foyer or a mudroom. They come in many styles and finishes, equipped with hooks, mirrors, storage benches, and shelves.
• If you've fortified enough to have a sizable linen closet in your bathroom, visit the closet organization section of your home improvement store. These stores have trained personnel who can help you look at the space you have and redesign it to suit your needs.

Installing a couple of double towel racks can provide a simple way to add storage space to your bathroom. But investigate all the possible storage options for your unique bathroom design challenges. You're not limited to one solution-think creatively and combine them to make a bathroom that works for you.

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10 Top Reasons Why I Have to Upgrade My Computer

The rate at which technology is improving is very fast and in the time you get comfortable with the computer hardware you have bought, several new and improved models appear in the market. While some people prefer to keep their computers state of the art, most of us have a 'If it is not broken, do not fix it' attitude when it comes to upgrading or replacing our computers.

This is a strategy that could prove expensive in the long run. It is always better to upgrade your computer on a regular basis, especially if you have had it for over 2-3 years. Even if your computer has had a large trouble-free existence, you really need to consider periodic upgrades and here are the reasons why you must dos so:

1. Increase in Processing Speed ​​- This is one place where you really get to notice an improvement in performance. If you are upgrading from a Celeron 433MHz processor to a Pentium 4 1.6GHz, you would really notice the difference in performance!

2. Faster Memory Access – Improvements in CPU speed are typically accommodated by improvements in the speed at which data transfer occurs between the CPU and RAM. This is another area that provides an improvement in performance.

3. Size and Capacity improvements – Technology drives a reduction in component size coupled with an increase in storage capacity. This means that a RAM card or hard disk of the similar size as the older ones in your computer could have double the capacity!

4. Software Compatibility – Many of the new software packages you may wish to use in order to improve your productivity or entertainment experience may not function well on you old computer. It is better to upgrade your computer to enjoy the benefits of new software fully.

5. Obsolescence of Hardware – As your hardware gets older; Getting a replacement will get more difficult once manufacturers start phasing out the production. With improvement in technology, the older hardware becomes cheaper initially and becomes expensive as supply dries up.

6. Technical Support Issues – Many manufacturers stop providing technical support for older components as they cease production. The older your computer gets, the harder it is to find help in fixing it when it malfunctions.

7. Development of New Hardware – New hardware products appear in the market frequently that revolutionize your computer experience and are based on newly developed technology. The chances of your old computer supporting new devices are very low.

8. Faster Devices – Your old computer may not be in a position to accommodate the speed at which the new devices communicate.

9. New, Fast Communication Protocols – You may not be able to implement new or faster communication protocols in your old computer because the hardware is unable to support them.

10. Operating System and File Format – Your old hardware may not be able to run newer operating systems and some of the file formats may not be supported.

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Recommended Software for Arena Management

When there is a little over a month left to enter the data for a thousand plus cattle penning teams into a fickle spread sheet software program that was built by good intentioned volunteers; the last thing anyone should be doing is looking for replacement software. However, as any event/entry secretary or producer knows this is sometimes the lifeline that is needed to get the job done.

The preparation of all of the necessary data combined with balancing a three-quarter of a million dollar show in the six weeks prior to its start should have been enough to do. Throwing in a new piece of software to learn and master would be considered ludicrous to say the least. The producers deemed it to be a necessity in view of the history of inconsistencies in the program currently in use.

With a three-year old recommendation in hand and very little back ground checking, Arena Management Software became the chosen lifeline. The software was purchased, loaded onto the computers, played with for a day or so and then our team went to work. The KCI support group was there, day and night, to help with the learning curve and any snags that presented themselves. Our team quickly realized that the new user-friendly software program we had taken a chance on was going to be our ongoing choice for future events. The show was a success. The producers and contestants were happy. All was good in our world!

There have been a lot of years pass by since those short six weeks when our group became acquainted with the Arena Management Software. The program still provides a user-friendly format that has the talent to produce minimal data to realms of reports. From rodeo to cattle penning events the product continues to amaze our team with its ability to perform in and out of the arena.

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What is the Purpose of ERP Software?

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software can be described as a complete business software solution. It is aimed at the integration of all business processes and sub-processes into a single unified system. This system is formulated and implemented in an organization to effectively and efficiently achieve the business goals of the organization.

ERP packages are implemented to manage the existing and prospective business plans and policies in an efficient manner under strict deadlines. It can be referred to as the ultimate business solution package that is predominantly concerned with making sure that the available resources of the organization are utilized in the best possible manner and coordinated with the business objectives of the organization.

It is crucial that modern day business organizations have a single unified system, which aims at harmonizing its business efforts. This can prove to be a crucial determinant in deciding the scope, area and net results of the organization as a whole, rather than running many different systems that don’t work well together. What makes ERP different from any other business solution package is the presence of a single and unified database system.

ERP software is as essential to the needs of a business today as food is for living. Businesses cannot run competitively in the absence of properly drafted and formulated ERP software. The more effective implementation and follow-up, the better are the results. ERP software is needed by all modern-day organizations, irrespective of the size, area of operations and business objectives.

Nowadays there are many ERP packages available in the global market, including SAP, PeopleSoft, Oracle, J D Edwards, and BAAN.

The selection of an ERP software package is dependent on many factors: previous software implementation, nature and size of operations, recommendations of consultants, and management decisions.

Before installing specialized software, a detailed study must be made and reviewed to match the business requirements with the available packages. This must be taken as a serious study as any mistake in selection or its effective implementation can prove disastrous to the organizational objectives and prospects. The ERP software must be installed by an ERP vendor or third-party consulting organization, which are expert service providers when it comes to providing Consulting, customization and support.

Some of the benefits of ERP Software:

* All processes and sub-processes are linked and unified into a single system.

* There are enhancements in the field of productivity, efficiency and achievement of business objectives.

* ERP tends to considerably reduce the response time by effectively transferring crucial information.

* ERP helps in streamlining the numerous functions performed by the organization as a whole.

* It helps the management to make vital decisions with unparalleled accuracy and in-depth study.

Thus, ERP software can effectively change the outlook of any business organization that exists in today’s cutthroat business world. Proper implementation of the ERP software is the key factor, which can benefit the growth prospects of any organization.

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The Advantages of Working With a Software Boutique Company

First of all, a boutique is a small shop where clients can find dedicated merchandise and unique items, or products which are produced in small quantities. The advantage of entering in such a shop, compared to big supermarkets, is that here you’ll also find staff ready to assist you and to give you guidance step by step. Indeed, one may say that a boutique charges higher prices, also in comparison to chain stores, which is definitely true. However, once you bought something from a boutique you’ll have the feeling that you own a unique item, which will differentiate you from the rest, and isn’t this what we all want – to be unique?

Software boutiques are a new way of defining petite software companies which are focused on a certain niche, and which are able to offer specialized support to their customers. Even more, such a firm is able to offer a unique product, tailored on the client’s needs and requirements. But, let’s see what advantages does a customer have when collaborating with a software boutique company:

Tailored product

A software boutique takes the client’s specifications and transforms them into a customized piece of software. Practically, if you are not satisfied by the mass-produced software programs which you can find, then a boutique company will tailor a product according to each and everyone of your requirements. The outcome will be a software product which is able to fit perfectly your company’s needs.

Niche focus

Generally, a boutique company is focused on a certain niche, for example developing applications and software products using Microsoft technologies. The advantage of having such a partner, is that you’ll have the confidence that he has the knowledge and proven experience to offer you the best advices regarding that specific area, and that he’s always updated with the latest technologies.

Crystal clear communication and dedicated support

Having a smaller amount of projects, a boutique software company can offer its clients dedicated support, according to every client’s need through a direct communication flow. This means that the information won’t need to travel through several departments until it reaches you, so that you’ll always be updated with the status and the quality of the work.

A good communication, not only that can save time, but also can make the development process more efficient. For example if you want a specific functionality for your application, collaborating with a boutique firm, you’ll able to keep track of the development process and promptly interfere in the development process if the work isn’t going in the desired direction, or if you want to change the approach. Also, fewer the clients, better the support. Practically, a software boutique will offer you their entire attention and expertise, whenever this is required.

Every client is important

For a boutique company every client is important, and because they can’t afford to lose a client, they can’t really afford to do a bad job. Every development project is treated with care, and you’ll know for sure that your project will be handled by the best men.

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Define Computer Hardware

It is quite well known that the working of the computer is dropped by hardware and software. One can define computer hardware as the electronic, magnetic, and electric devices that carry out the computing functions. Hardware is the physical components of the computer like microprocessor, hard disks, RAM, and motherboard. The peripheral devices such as monitor, mouse, keyboard, printer, and speakers can also be included in the list of hardware parts. The programs that run on the computers like Windows, C ++, and Photoshop are the software parts of the computer. A good example for an easy understanding of hardware-software definition is music CDs. The actual compact disk is the hardware, while the songs and music in the CD are the software parts.

There is another way to define computer hardware. Hardware devices are the executors of the commands provided by software applications. For example, let us see what happens when you click the print button of the web browsing software. The software application provides a command to the processor, which is the central part of all computer hardware. Processor in turn checks for an attached printer. If the printer is ready, the software will get a positive response from the processor. Then the software application provides instruction to the printer via the processor to print the web page. In that sense, hardware parts are the foot soldiers and software applications are the commanders in the digital operation that takes place within a computer.

The main player of computer hardware is unduly the microprocessor. It is the sun in the solar system of computer hardware devices. It is the central component and all other components work around it. It is an integrated chip on which a number of functions are incorporated. Two specifications determine its efficiency. One is its processing speed, which is measured in gigahertz. The other is its bit rate. Commonly available processors are 32 bit and 64 bit. The bit rate is a measure of the efficiency of a processor to carry out multiple operations at the same time.

One can not define computer hardware without mentioning the two types of memory used in computers. One is permanent memory. It refers to the magnetic storage capacity of hard disk. It is measured in gigabytes. The second is RAM or random access memory. This memory is able to store data only when the computer is switched on. The memory will lose all the data when the computer is switched off.

Another important product that one should mention when one defines computer hardware is motherboard. It is the electric and electronic circuit board on which all the other components are inserted. There are several other kinds of products such as sound card, video card, network card, and modem that complete the hardware spectrum.

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3 Main Causes of Kernel Errors

A kernel error is a failure in some code critical to Windows. If you have ever encountered a Blue Screen of Death (BSoD), then you have seen a kernel error. Windows is actually several layers of programs made to work together. You can think of Windows as if it were your body, with many pieces working together to make a whole, and, like your body, some parts of Windows are more important than others.

The kernel is the most important part of Windows. It includes critical programs to handle things like memory management and device drivers for the graphics card. These programs are like a body's heart and brain. If something in the kernel crashes, it will often cause all of Windows to crash.

Software Failures

Because there are a lot of programs in the kernel, there are many opportunities for bugs to appear. Although Microsoft does extensive testing to get rid of bugs, their testing facilities can not run through all the combinations that billions of computers use with Windows when some bugs get through.

However, many of the kernel failures are in device drivers written by companies that make hardware, not by Microsoft. Your graphics card, for example, probably uses a driver created by the video company. These companies often work with Microsoft to test their drivers, but having companies working together adds an additional layer of complexity.

Hardware Failures

A hardware failure can cause a kernel error. If your graphics card fails, it can send bad data to the graphics device driver, which then crashes, creating a kernel error. If your hard disk fails, it can corrupt files used by Windows and cause the programs that use those files to crash.

Registry Failures

Registry failures can cause kernel errors. The registry is a database of information that Windows uses to store information about programs. If the registry gets corrupt, the programs that use it can cause kernel errors.

Registry corruption can come from either software or hardware failures. Software corruption can come from a bug in one of the programs that writes information out to the registry. Or if you turn off your computer without doing a complete shutdown, the registry files may not get completely written to the disk. Hardware corruption can happen when the hard disk fails causing parts of the registry files to be lost. It's a good idea to do some research on kernel errors and other registry issues.

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Advantages of Antispyware Programs

Much like the antivirus programs, now a days anti spyware programs also is a must if you are browsing the net. Most of the antivirus programs provide a good job by taking care of the computer viruses. However, many of them fail to detect the spyware which gets installed onto the PC when connected to the internet. This is where Anti spyware programs comes to help. They do a good job by protecting our computers by identifying the spyware and promptly remove them.

There are so many antispyware programs are available in the market. Both in the Online as well as near to your computer retail showroom. However, you have to ensure that you buy a good Anti spyware program which fulfills the requirements what it promises. Also, make sure to check that the software works on your Operating System. Most of them work on Windows Operating system; however, there is no harm in double checking the same.

Some of the characteristics of a good antispyware program is as below.

Real time scanning

Real time scanning is the heart of these type of programs. The program once installed should reside on your system tray and should be able to do a real time scan in the background. This way it should be able to identify all kinds of threats like Adware, spyware, Trojans and the harmful key loggers.

Automatic Updates

There is no point in having an Antispyware software program which does not update the spyware definitions automatically and at periodic intervals.

Customer Support

Most of the time you will not be require to call up their helpdesk as the software will work automatically provided if the operating system is compatible and all the installation prerequisites are met. However, if you run across any installation problems or some kind of bugs customer service comes in handy.

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The 4 Elements That Makes Up A Personal Computer System

There are 4 elements that make up a personal computer system: the user, software, hardware and the electricity all working together for the whole system. Each of these elements is essential to the system itself.

The user is the person's who perform the task using the computer system. The nature of the task depends upon the application program or software that is needed to perform the task. The software that the user used requires certain hardware components to function properly.

The hardwares of the personal computer system are made up of its equipment that are usually connected (the computer, monitor, printer and so on). It is defined as hardwares because you can physically touch these components. The programs are called softwares since their function can only be used when the computer is turn ON. Software is a set of coded instructions that the computer uses in order to carry out the user's tasks.

The user can only use the computer when it is turned ON. Without any electrical power to run through the personal computer system, it will not function. The ability of the personal computer system to control its components is through a series of on / off signals.

Here is how it works, when a user tries to type a document or a letter using his / her personal computer. The first thing the user do is to turn ON the power for the computer. Choosing a Word Processor software in order to write the document. The user uses the hardware such as the keyboard to write the content of the document; The typed document is then displayed onto the monitor screen. After the user finished writing his / her document. The user will use the software to instruct the printer to print the document. The software works together with the hardware components (the keyboard, monitor and printer) to accomplish the task that the user requested.

All of the four elements: the electrical power, hardware, software and the user work together to make up a personal computer system.

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